Sexes alike. Chocolate brown above; olivish-yellow, pointed tail; white bars on rump; chestnut sides of face, chin and throat; white below, thickly speckled with very dark brown on breast, flanks and part of belly (speckles may be absent during winter and much of summer). Sociable, moving in flocks of six to several dozen birds, often with other munias and weaver birds; feeds on ground and low bushes, but rests in trees.
Sexes alike. Dullbrown above, with white rump; very dark, almost black wings; pointed tail; pale buffy-white below, with some brown on flanks; thick, grey-blue or slaty beak striking. Gregarious; mostly keeps to scrub in open country; feeds on ground and on standing crops, especially millet; overall a rather ‘dull’ bird, both in colour and demeanour.
Breeding male: crimson and brown, spotted white on wings and flanks; white-tipped tail. Female: brown above, spotted on wings; crimson rump; dull white throat; buffy-grey breast, yellow brown below. Non-breeding male: like female, but greyer throat; upper breast distinctive. Small flocks, often with other weavers; partial to tall grass and scrub, preferably around well-watered areas; active and vibrant birds and rather confiding; huge numbers captured for bird markets.
Mainly yellow, black, brown and whitish weaver, distinguished from other weavers by pale blue-grey bill; breeding male has bright yellow crown and broad black breast band; ear coverts, throat may be whitish or brownish, irrespective of region; whitish or pale underparts, with weak streaking on flanks; streaked brown upperparts; non-breeding male has black cap, yellow supercilium, throat, under-eye crescent; black eye- and malar stripes; sometimes broken breast band; female, juvenile somewhat similar; gregarious even when breeding; colonial nester.
Breeding male: bright yellow crown; dark brown above, streaked yellow; dark brown ear-coverts and throat; yellow breast. Female: buffy-yellow above, streaked darker; pale supercilium and throat, turning buffy-yellow on breast, streaked on sides. Nonbreeding male: bolder streaking than female; male of eastern race burmanicus has yellow restricted to crown. Gregarious; one of the most familiar and common birds of India, best known for its nest; keeps to cultivated areas, interspersed with trees; feeds on ground and in standing crops.
Sexes alike. Fulvous-brown above, with dark brown centres of feathers, giving a distinctive appearance; dark brown tail, with white outer feathers, easily seen in
flight; dull-fulvous below, streaked dark brown on sides of throat, neck and entire breast. The winter-visiting Tawny Pipit A. campestris usually lacks streaks on underbody while Blyth’s Pipit A. godlewskii is indistinguishable in field, except by its harsher call note. Pairs or several scattered on ground; run in short spurts; when disturbed, utters feeble note as it takes off; singing males perch on grass tufts and small bushes.
Black above; prominent white supercilium and large wing-band; black throat and breast; white below. Female is usually browner where male is black. The black-backed races of White Wagtail M. alba have conspicuous white forehead. Mostly in pairs, though small parties may feed together in winter; a bird of flowing waters, being especially fond of rockstrewn rivers, though it may be seen on ponds and tanks; feeds at edge of water, wagging tail frequently; also rides on the ferry-boats plying rivers.
Male: grey crown and rump; chestnut sides of neck and nape; black streaks on chestnut-rufous back; black chin, centre of throat and breast; white ear-coverts. The Spanish Sparrow P. hispaniolensis male has a chestnut crown and black streaks on flanks. Female: dull grey-brown above, streaked darker; dull whitish-brown below. Small parties to large gatherings; mostly commensal on man, feeding and nesting in and around habitation, including most crowded localities; also feeds in cultivation; hundreds roost together.
Br Male: metallic purple-blue above, and on throat and breast; dark purplish-black belly; narrow chestnut-maroon band between breast and belly; yellow and scarlet pectoral tufts, normally hidden under wings. Female: olive-brown above; pale yellow below (zeylonica female has whitish throat). Non-breeding male: much like female but with a broad purple-black stripe down centre of throat to belly. Solitary or in pairs; an important pollinating agent, almost always seen around flowering trees and bushes; displays amazing agility and acrobatic prowess when feeding; sometimes hunts flycatcher style.
Sexes alike. Olive-grey above, greener on rump; white-tipped tail; dull whitishgrey below, streaked brown, more on breast; orange-red eyes and thick, blue-grey beak seen at close range. Solitary or in pairs in canopy foliage; arboreal, restless; flicks tail often as it hunts under leaves or along branches; frequents parasitic clumps of Loranthus and Viscum.