Male: striking glossy black plumage, with long, pointed crest and chestnut wings and tail. Female: crested; olive-brown above, streaked darker; rufous in wings distinctive; buffy-yellow below, streaked dark on breast; darkish moustachial stripe. Small flocks, often spread wide over an area; feeds on ground, on paths, meadows and tar roads, especially along mountainsides; perches on ruins, walls, stones and low bushes; on ground.
Sexes alike. Olive-brown above; unmarked greywhite below; pinkish-flesh and yellow-brown beak seen only at close range or in good light. Solitary or two to three birds in canopy; frequents parasitic Loranthus and Viscum; flits from clump to clump; strictly arboreal, restless; territorial even when feeding.
A dull black bird, much more duller than Black with a long, forked tail and greyer underparts. No spot at base of bill and and vivid red irises. Tail fork usually deeper and more splayed. Juvenile greyer. Partly crepuscular. Hunts mainly aerial insects from bare branches in tree-tops. Usually solitary, in pairs or small parties. Noisy and bold, attacking passing raptors and corvids in particular. As with all drongos, other small birds often nest near them for protection. Nests high in tree.
Male has bold chestnut shoulder patches bordered with black and white and a yellow throat patch. Female is identical but both patches duller. Bill yellow, black in male in breeding season. Tail fairly long. Rather pale and featureless in some lights. Has a pipit-like flight. Usually arboreal. Feeds on invertebrates, leaves and nectar, in small groups. Difficult to spot in foliage.
Sexes alike. Dull grey-brown above, streaked darker; very pale around eyes; long, graduated tail, faintly crossbarred, tipped white; whitish underbody, buffy on belly. Plumage more rufous in winter. Small parties move in low growth; usually does not associate with other birds; restless, flicks wings and tail often; occasionally hunts like flycatcher.
A small, dusky swallow with notched, long, broad tail. Blackish-blue mantle, brown wings, rump and tail and deep chestnut crown. Heavily streaked blackish on face, throat and upper breast. Brown under tail. Often looks very dark. The browner juvenile is often confused with Plain Martin. Has a weak, martin-like flight.
Dusky Crag Martin
Sexes alike. Dark sooty-brown above; square-cut, short tail, with white spot on all but outermost and central tail feathers; paler underbody; faintly rufous chin and throat, with indistinct black streaking. Small parties; flies around ruins, crags and old buildings, hawking insects in flight; acrobatic, swallow-like flight and appearance; rests during hot hours on rocky ledges or some corner.
Sexes alike. Long wings and slight tail-fork. Grey-brown above, slightly darker on crown; dark brown wings and tail; dull grey below, whiter towards abdomen. A gregarious species, always in flocks, flying around sand-banks along water courses; individual birds occasionally stray far and high; hawks small insects in flight; flocks perch on telegraph wires.
Male: blue-grey above; black stripe from lores to nape; whitish cheeks and upper throat; all but central tail feathers black, with white markings; chestnut below. Female: duller chestnut below. Pairs or several, often with other small birds; restless climber; clings to bark and usually works up the tree stem, hammering with beak; also moves upside-down and sideways; may visit the ground.
Male: dark grey above, streaked black; black mask; white supercilium, wing-patch and outer tail; white throat and belly; dull grey breast. Female: rufous-brown, streaked; rusty rump and outer tail; white throat; yellow-brown below. Solitary or pairs; like other chats, keeps to open country and edge of forest; perches on bush tops and poles, flirts tail often; regularly seen in an area; flies to ground on spotting insect.