A plain, medium-sized sandy pipit with dark lores. Adult is plain sandy-brown above with streaking only on crown and breast sides. Juvenile streaked above and spotted on breast and easily confused with other streaked pipits. Long pale supercilia and indistinct moustache. Obvious white-edged, black median coverts. Outer tail feathers buff. Hind claws short. Horizontal wagtail-like carriage.
subspecies- thunbergi, bema, melanogrisea
Very variable, mainly greenish and yellow wagtail; many races and hybrids occur; only wagtail with olive green or brownish mantle, back, rump (brownishbacked Forest has unmistakable wing, breast pattern); relatively shorter tail; yellow underparts, vent (Citrine has white vent); two wing bars; breeding males have from greenish yellow to dark grey crowns, ear coverts; non-breeding and females brownish, with straight, pale supercilium (Citrine has curved); whitish or yellowwashed underparts; very gregarious in winter; less undulating wagtail flight.
Male has bold chestnut shoulder patches bordered with black and white and a yellow throat patch. Female is identical but both patches duller. Bill yellow, black in male in breeding season. Tail fairly long. Rather pale and featureless in some lights. Has a pipit-like flight. Usually arboreal. Feeds on invertebrates, leaves and nectar, in small groups. Difficult to spot in foliage.
A large, streaked brown lark with a short crest. Similar to Oriental but obviously larger with clear, white outer tail feathers and trailing edge to wings. No rusty colouring in wings. Looks much whiter below with finer breast and flank streaking. Rather long wings and tail. Sexes similar.
Greyish with dark cheek patches; grey head, brown mantle and wings; short brown tail with white outer tail feathers; throat white, breast and belly greyer; flanks brownish. Recently split Small or Desert Lesser Whitethroat is smaller and paler. Often in loose groups. Horizontal carriage. Confident direct flight. Rather shy.
Sexes alike. Dull grey-brown above, streaked darker; very pale around eyes; long, graduated tail, faintly crossbarred, tipped white; whitish underbody, buffy on belly. Plumage more rufous in winter. Small parties move in low growth; usually does not associate with other birds; restless, flicks wings and tail often; occasionally hunts like flycatcher.
A small, dusky swallow with notched, long, broad tail. Blackish-blue mantle, brown wings, rump and tail and deep chestnut crown. Heavily streaked blackish on face, throat and upper breast. Brown under tail. Often looks very dark. The browner juvenile is often confused with Plain Martin. Has a weak, martin-like flight.
Dusky Crag Martin
Sexes alike. Dark sooty-brown above; square-cut, short tail, with white spot on all but outermost and central tail feathers; paler underbody; faintly rufous chin and throat, with indistinct black streaking. Small parties; flies around ruins, crags and old buildings, hawking insects in flight; acrobatic, swallow-like flight and appearance; rests during hot hours on rocky ledges or some corner.
Sexes alike. Long wings and slight tail-fork. Grey-brown above, slightly darker on crown; dark brown wings and tail; dull grey below, whiter towards abdomen. A gregarious species, always in flocks, flying around sand-banks along water courses; individual birds occasionally stray far and high; hawks small insects in flight; flocks perch on telegraph wires.
A tiny, green and yellow tit, the male with a red crown and throat in breeding plumage. Green above with two thin, white wing bars. Deep yellow below in male, paler in female and almost white in juvenile. Beady black eyes and very short pointed bill.